Tropical almond or Indian almond: Medicinal properties and Growing

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Tropical almond or Indian almond is a perennial plant commonly found in Asia, especially in Southeast Asia, which is popular for shade and wood planting for the first time in Southeast Asia. Often found in government or places for shade shading.

Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Termonalia
Species: T.catappa
English name: Tropical almond, India almond
Scientific name: Terminalia catappa L.

Botanical of Tropical almond
Stem
Tropical almond or Indian almond is a medium to large perennial plant. The stems are straight and branched in a horizontal position. The canopy is quite round or a thick pyramid shape. The bark is gray and shattered into shallow grooves and peels into small flakes.

Leaf
Tropical almond leaves are classified as simple leaf. The leaf is light green when it is new and when the leaf is older it will turn yellow to brown. The leaf is alternately arranged at the end of the branch, with an oval shape, about 8-15 cm wide, about 12-15 cm long. The base of the leaf is narrow and concave. The leaf is thick and covered with fur and the edge of leaf is smooth. Deciduous leaves in winter during October-November.

flower
The flower of the Tropical almond will bloom as a long-flowered bouquet. Inflorescences will follow the axillary. Each inflorescence is about 8-12 cm long and consists of white or light yellow flowers. Each flower is small and has no fragrance. (Some information that has a slightly pungent odor) flowers are sexually separate but on the same inflorescence. Male flowers are located at the end of the bouquet. The female flowers are located at the base of the bouquet. Each flower has no petals, but has 5 sepals. The petals are connected together. The tip of the petals is divided into 5 lobes and covered with feathers. Male flowers have 10 layers of stamens. Flowers when full bloom will be about 0.4-0.6 cm in width. The flowers will bloom twice a year for 1 year in the winter after being a new leaf (November to January) and again during the rainy season (June to August).

fruit
fruits are oval or oval-shaped and slightly flat. The fruit has a width of about 2-5 centimeters, which is about 3-7 centimeters long. The fruit shell has a greenish color and when it is old, it has a yellowish-brown color and when dry it becomes dark black. When the shell is removed or decomposed, it will be seen as a tightly packed fiber throughout the shell. Each fruit contains only 1 seed. Each seed is oval and elongated like almonds. Can be eaten, giving a fragrant flavor.

Benefits of Tropical almond
– Planted as an ornamental plant because the young leaves have large leaves, light green color, look beautiful and refreshing, so they are popular to be planted as ornamental plants and shade.
– because it is a large canopy that consists of large leaves and has a lot of leaves, causing shade and creating a shady place.
– The wood is processed into wood sheets for the construction of houses, furniture, musical instruments, animal handling equipment, furniture and others. The wood from the old Tropical almond has a red or blackish brown color at the core.
– Branches and wood can be used as firewood for heating for cooking.
– Crushed or boiled leaves for fabric dyeing which can be used for both young green leaves and yellow leaves, including roots and raw fruits and which can be used in the dyeing of leather, black production and produce color ink.
– Tropical almond leaves are popularly used to soak water for raising betta fish so that the fish are healthy, reproductive and grow well, do not cause disease, inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in fish and help the betta fish to have a bright, colorful color. In addition, it helps to maintain the acid-base level of the water in the aquarium.
– Seeds can be eaten raw or boiled or burned.
– Seeds can be extracted into a clear, odorless oil that resembles almond oil. It is used to nourish, nourish, massage, relieve aches and pains, and also be used in beauty.

Nutritional of seeds (100 g)

Proximates
water % 4
Energy Kcal 594
Protein g 20.8
Oil g 54
Carbohydrate g 19.2
Fiber g 2.3
Minerals
Calcium mg 32
Iron mg 9.2
Phosphorus mg 789
Vitamins
Tai Amine (B1) mg 0.32
Riboflavin (B2) mg 0.08
Niacin (B3) mg 0.6

Important substance found
The pigment found in Tropical almond leaves have 2 groups:
1. Tetra Piro, such as porphyrin, contains chlorophyll (chlorophyll), which is a magnesium complex, which is a pigment that gives green color. This magnesium complex does not tolerate acidic conditions and heat when heated or in acidic conditions, turns into greenish or greenish brown in phoophytin form because magnesium will fall out of the molecule.
2. O-heterocyclic, such as flavonoid, consists of flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins. In addition, the Tropical almond leaf also contains tannin compounds. Which are bitter and astringent, such as geraniin, granatin B, chebulagic acid, corilagin punicalagin, punicalin, terflavins A and B, tergallagin, tercatain but not caffeine and these substances have the ability to precipitate protein and can be captured with metal ions good.

The old Tropical almond leaves, when soaked in water or boiled, will give a dark brown color that contains various substances that contain many minerals, including sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, sulfur, calcium, sodium, etc.

Limchupornvikul (1993) studied the chemical components in Tropical almond leaves and the application of textile dyeing. It was found that the yellow substance is a hydrolyzatetannin. This yellow substance consists of 3 types, corralin, tuflavin A and fonica latin, and the other 1 unknown type of structure and when the substance was dyed with wool, silk, nylon, cotton, rayon and acetate. It was found that this material could be dyed with protein fibers (wool and silk) and polyamide fibers (nylon, rayon and acetate) and was well tolerated. The color will be yellowish green, all kinds of fibers.

Medicinal properties
– All parts of Tropical Almond help relieve the flu, cure diarrhea, diarrhea, cure dysentery, use as a laxative, astringent and help drive the milk of women.
– Roots help to maintain the symptoms of dysmenorrhea in women.
– Bark for treatment of liver disease.
– Bark is used to treat joint pain and various orthopedic diseases.
– The bark is used to make astringent drugs to cure diarrhea, dysentery, infectious diseases in the gastrointestinal tract and solve malnutrition in children.
– The bark is used as a blood tonic. Including helping the regular menstrual period Cure vaginal discharge And reduce odor in the vagina.
– In Taiwan, the use of Tropical Almond leaves is a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease.
– Leaves sweat and helps reduce fever.
– leaves to cure tonsillitis.
– Leaves are used as anthelmintic drugs.
– Leaves and bark to treat joint pain and various orthopedic diseases.
– Leaves and bark are boiled and used as a laxative drug, especially the yellow or red leaves that fall from the tree will give better results than the young leaves on the tree.
– Leaves and bark are boiled for bathing to help heal wounds, treat skin diseases from fungi.
– Seed oil, used to massage, reduces pain and bruises.
– Oil from seeds when mixed with finely ground leaves can be used to treat leprosy and other skin diseases.
– Seeds contain fat, protein, vitamins and energy, nourish the body, nourish the blood and nourish the heart.

Chen and the faculty (2000) extracted the substance from the Tropical almond leaves. Most of the compounds found are tannin, called punicalagin, a substance that inhibits genetic toxicity. Because it is an antioxidant compound and found methylene chloride and methanol that have antibacterial, viral and fungal properties.

Growing
Tropical almond is grown only with seeds. But can be grown in other ways as well, such as cuttings, branches, branches, etc.

The collection of seeds for planting should be collected during June-July. Because it is the period in which the fruits and seeds are mature and start to fall. The fruit that falls on the ground will have a large, thick shell, hard and covered with shells. If needing to germinate quickly, should be dried and then soaked in water for about 3-5 days before planting.

Naturally, when the Tropical almond seeds fall to the ground and there is soil or material covered and when there is rain or soil with sufficient moisture, then it will make the Tropical almond seeds begin to sprout small seedlings. This small seedling can be scooped for growing, which will save on costs and shorten the time.

For planting with seeds is considered the most popular by collecting seeds that fall from the tree and then dried first. Growing will be planted in nursery bags first by mixing the soil with agricultural materials such as manure, rice husk, ash, sawdust and crushed coconut by using either at the rate of 1: 1 or 2:1.