Chestnut: Benefits and Medicinal properties

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Chestnut is a perennial plant that is popular for roasting seeds for eating. Because the seeds have a large seed texture and when roasted, they will have a yellowish seed texture with a slightly sweet and fragrant flavor. Therefore, it is popular to eat by Asians.

• Family: Fagaceae
• Scientific name: Castanea spp.
• Common name: Chestnut

Origin and Distribution
Chestnut is a plant that can be found in many different countries, including Asia, Europe and America, which are many different species, but are found to be cultivated and popularly eaten as a Chinese chestnut, which is found in southern China and Southeast Asia.

Botanical of Chestnut
Stem
Chestnut is a medium to large perennial plant. The stem has a height of more than 20 meters. The stem bark is black or black-brown and splits into a vertical groove along the length of the trunk. The young branches or ends of the branches are soft gray hairs covered.

Leaf
Chestnut is dicotyledon. Leaving a simple leaf indented alternately at the end of the branch Chestnut leaf have different characteristics according to the species.

The Chinese chestnut leaf is shaped like a spear with a slender stem, about 1.0-2.5 centimeters long. Next is the stipule and the next is a leaf. The leaf is spear-shaped and the tip of the spikes is about 1 cm long.The leaf has short hairs covered. The leaf is about 3.5-7.0 cm wide and 10-22 centimeters long. The leaf is quite thick and hard. The edge of the leaf is serrated and has thorns. The top leaf is fresh green. The bottom sheet is green and has short hairs covered. The leaf is clear, white, green and have 10-21 lines per side.

flower
Chestnuts of all species bloom as a bouquet. Each type has a different flower pattern, such as Chinese chestnut, with long inflorescences and a number of inflorescences at the end of the branch. Each inflorescence is about 5-15 cm long and on the inflorescence consists of many small flowers. In the middle of the inflorescence to the end of the inflorescence will be male flowers. Male flowers have 6 sepals, no petals, the inside of the flower is 10-12 yellowish-brown stamens, while the base of the inflorescence is female flowers. Female flowers have a hard, clad calyx with 6 lobes and no petals. The inner part is 4-6 ovaries.

Fruit and seed
Chestnut fruit is combined into a bouquet. Each bouquet has about 2-5 fruits. The fruit group is round and quite flat. The young fruit has a green shell. The fruit that has been ripe will have red or red color. The fruit bark is both smooth and thorny, which may be sparsely spaced or soft, resembling a small velvet covering depending on the species. The size of the fruit is about 2.5-3 cm, length about 3-4 cm. When the fruit is dried, the fruit will be cracked on the side. Inside the fruit contains 1-3 seeds.

The seed is slightly round or round. The seed shell is dark brown or black, thick and hard. The seed size is about 2-2.5 centimeters, about 2.5-3 cm long. The flesh in the seeds is yellowish white. The flesh of the seed, when heated, is yellow or dark yellow, has a sweet, oily and fragrant flavor. Popular to bring seed to roast for fire. Chestnut will continue to be fruitful from September to April.

Chestnut varieties grown
1. Chinese chestnut or Castanea mollissima Blume.
Chinese chestnut is a chestnut that is very popular in Asia, including Thailand. Because there is a large seed, very seedy texture, firm, fragrant and slightly sweet, which originated in southern China that grows well in the cold and not very cold weather

2. Japanese chestnut or Castanea crenata Sieb & Zucc.
Japanese chestnut Is another type of chestnut in Asia that has seeds similar to Chinese chestnuts, but needs cooler weather than Chinese chestnuts. This type of chestnut is found growing in the cold weather areas in Japan, Korea and China.

3. European chestnut or Castanea sativa Mill.
European chestnuts are chestnuts that are native to Europe. This type of chestnut is found growing in Italy, France, Spain and the Mediterranean countries. Is a chestnut that needs more cold air than the varieties in Asia. It has a somewhat sweeter taste than other varieties, so it is called Sweet Chestnut.

4. American Chestnut or Castanea dentata Borkh.
American chestnut Is a chestnut that grows and needs high cold weather. This type of chestnut is found to be grown in the United States of America in the cold zone.

5. Hybrid chestnut (Castanea hybrid)
Chestnut hybrids are chestnuts that are mixed by various chestnuts, including the United States, bringing Chinese chestnuts to grow and cross-breed with American chestnuts or breeding to suit the area of their own country.

Pictures of other species of chestnuts

Benefits of Chestnut
1. Chestnut seeds have a large grain texture, when roasted, they are yellow-colored, sweet and fragrant.
2. Chestnut trees, popularly grown as ornamental flowers, because the fruits are bright red and beautiful.
3. Chestnut seeds, in addition to being eaten as food, are also popularly extracted or ground into flour for use in making sweets.
4. Chestnut seeds used as food for animals.
5. Popular fruit peels, boiled and dyed. The dyed fabric will have a red or orange color.
6. Wood is used in construction or processed into furniture.

Nutritional value of chestnut seeds (100 grams of roasted seeds cooked)

Proximates
Water g 8.90
Energy KJ 363
Protein g 6.82
Fat g 1.81
Carbohydrate g 79.76
Minerals
Calcium mg 29
Iron mg 2.29
Magnesium mg 137
Phosphorus mg 155
Potassium mg 726
Sodium mg 5
Zinc mg 1.41
Vitamins
Vitamin C mg 58.5
Thiamine mg 0.260
Riboflavin mg 0.293
Niacin mg 1.300
Vitamin B-6 mg 0.666
Folate mg 110
Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00
Vitamin A, RAE µg 16
Vitamin A, IU IU 328
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0
Vitamin K µg 34.1
Lipids
All saturated fatty acids g 0.266
Saturated fatty acids of all single line types g 0.945
Saturated fatty acids of all multiple line types g 0.489
Cholesterol mg 0

USDA Nutrient Database

Medicinal properties
– Helps to nourish the body
– Nourishing kidney
– Helps to nourish muscles
– Helps to nourish the spleen
– Relief and treatment of stomach diseases
– Helps to drive the wind
– Relieve cough
– Help dissolve phlegm
– Relieve vomiting, nausea
– Helps to stop bleeding
– Stimulate the blood circulation system
– Relieve blood transfusion
– Cure nosebleeds

Growing
Chestnuts grown in many countries are imported from China. Chestnuts can be grown by seeding and breeding from other methods such as branching and plugging.